What is Crohn's disease: It's causes, symptoms and treatment


Current experts estimate that more than three-quarters of a million people in the United States develop Crohn's disease each year. It can affect an estimated 6 to 8 million people worldwide. So every one of us should know some information about this disease. And so in today's post, we have discussed various information about this disease like, what is Crohn's disease, the causes of Crohn's disease, symptoms of Crohn's disease and its treatment, and more.

What is Crohn's disease
If you read this entire post carefully, hopefully, you will get a complete understanding of Crohn's Disease. So without further delay let's start the main discussion.

What is Crohn's disease?

What is Crohn's Disease? This is a question many of us have. Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease. which causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It primarily affects the lining of the human body's reproductive system. It is one of the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It can affect any part of the GI tract in the human body from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the end of the small intestine (ileum) and the beginning of the large intestine (colon).

It causes inflammation in the human body resulting in symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, and sometimes rectal bleeding. It is a chronic incurable disease. No cure for this disease has been discovered yet. But treatment can ease your symptoms and help you enjoy a full, active life. Keep reading the post to learn more details about this disease.

What is diet Crohn's disease?

A Crohn's disease diet refers to a specific dietary regimen in which a person with Crohn's disease eats and avoids a variety of foods to avoid Crohn's disease. Although there is currently no one-size-fits-all diet for Crohn's disease, certain dietary strategies can help manage the symptoms of the disease and improve overall health in some individuals.

What are the types of Crohn’s disease?

Crohn's disease is an incurable inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in the human body, from the mouth to the anus. The disease is primarily classified based on the location of the inflammation within the digestive system of the human body. Below are the different types of Crohn's disease.

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Ileocolitis: The most common form of Crohn's disease is ileocolitis. It affects the small intestine (the end of the small intestine (ileum)) and the beginning of the large intestine (colon) in the human body.

Symptoms of Ileocolitis:

  • Diarrhea
  • Cramping
  • Considerable weight loss
  • Pain in the middle or lower right part of your abdomen

Ileitis: This form of Crohn's disease affects only the last part of the small intestine (the ileum) in the human body.

Symptoms of Ileitis:

  • Cramping
  • Diarrhea
  • Considerable weight loss
  • Pain in the middle or lower right part of your abdomen
  • Fistulas, or inflammatory abscesses, may form in the lower right section of your abdomen.
Gastroduodenal Crohn's disease: This form of Crohn's disease causes inflammation in the human body's stomach and the beginning of the small intestine called the duodenum.

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Symptoms of Gastroduodenal Crohn's disease:

  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Vomiting (if narrow segments of the bowel are obstructed)

Crohn's Colitis: This form of Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the lining of the large intestine in humans. 

Symptoms of Crohn's Colitis:

  • Diarrhea
  • Skin lesions
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Joint pain
  • Ulcers, fistulas, and abscesses around the anus

Jejunoileitis: This form of Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the lining of the large intestine in humans.

Symptoms of Jejunoileitis:

  • Fistulas
  • Diarrhea
  • Cramps after meals
  • Abdominal pain can become intense.

Perianal disease: This type of Crohn's disease causes inflammation in and around the anus. It can cause complications like fistulas, abscesses skin tags, etc. in the human body.

How common is Crohn’s disease in the USA?

Crohn's disease can affect people of any age. However, it is more common in people aged 15 to 35 years. It can affect both men and women equally. Crohn's disease is relatively common in the United States today. However, the exact prevalence of the disease may vary depending on the population studied and the criteria used for diagnosis. However, according to estimates by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation, Crohn's disease currently affects about 1.3 million people in America. 

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The estimated prevalence of Crohn's disease in the United States is about 201 to 322 per 100,000 people. That means more than half a million people in the United States are currently living with Crohn's disease.

Crohn's disease causes

Doctors still don't know exactly what causes Crohn's disease. However, most doctors now believe that this disease is caused when the immune system in the human body mistakenly attacks and destroys other healthy tissues in the body. There may also be several other reasons behind the occurrence of this disease. Which is listed below.

  1. The disease can be caused by the human body's immune system mistakenly attacking the lining of the GI tract.
  2. The disease can be caused by genetic factors, especially (people of white or Eastern European Jewish descent are at higher risk.)
  3. Excessive smoking can increase the risk of developing this disease.
  4. Certain medications such as antibiotics, birth control pills, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can increase the risk of developing this disease.
  5. A high-fat diet increases the risk of developing this disease.
  6. An abnormal balance of gut bacteria.
  7. Environmental factors – like air pollution, medication, or previous infections.
  8. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin NIH external link or ibuprofen NIH external link,5 antibiotics, 6 and birth control pills NIH external link6 may slightly increase the risk of developing Crohn's disease, etc.

Crohn's disease symptoms

In Crohn's disease, any part of your small or large intestine can be involved. It can involve one or more parts of the human body or it can be continuous. In some people, the disease may occur only in the large intestine (colon). In some people, the disease may occur only in the small intestine (ileum). Symptoms of Crohn's disease can range from mild to severe. Symptoms of this disease usually develop slowly in the human body, but sometimes it can appear suddenly without warning. 

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However, the following is a list of all the symptoms that are usually seen in a patient after being affected by this disease. 

  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Mouth sores
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Joint pain
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • blood and mucus in your poo
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Reduced appetite and weight loss
  • Urgent need to have a bowel movement (urgency)
  • Pain or drainage near or around the anus due to inflammation from a tunnel into the skin (fistula)

Other signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease

People with severe Crohn's disease may also experience symptoms outside of the intestinal tract, including:

  • Constipation
  • Swollen gums
  • Kidney stones
  • Iron deficiency (anemia)
  • Joint pain and swelling
  • Inflammation of skin, eyes and joints
  • Inflammation of the liver or bile ducts
  • Skin problems, such as rashes or sores around the anus
  • Delayed growth or sexual development, in children
  • Draining of pus, mucus, or stools from around the rectum or anus (caused by something called a fistula)

Symptoms in females of Crohn's disease

  • Lower fertility
  • Irregular menstruation due to effects on hormone function.
  • Pain during sex, if symptoms affect areas near the anus or vagina.
  • Iron deficiency, like Crohn’s, affects the absorption of nutrients and can lead to intestinal bleeding.
  • Discomfort about sex, as Crohn’s can affect a person’s libido and body image, as well as cause pain and other types of discomfort.

Crohn's disease treatments

Although, there is currently no specific cure for Crohn's disease. However, Crohn's disease is treated with a variety of medications, bowel rest, and surgery. No single treatment works for everyone with Crohn's disease. The goal of treating this disease is to reduce inflammation in your gut, prevent the spread of your symptoms, and put you into remission.


Many people with Crohn's disease need medication. However, which medicines your doctor will prescribe depends on the symptoms of your disease. Although there is currently no cure for Crohn's disease, these medications can reduce the symptoms of Crohn's disease. Some medications that can reduce the symptoms of Crohn's disease are listed below.

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Aminosalicylates: These drugs contain 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which helps control inflammation. Doctors use aminosalicylates for people who are newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease and who have mild symptoms. Aminosalicylate also includes medicines called balsalazide, olsalazine, mesalamine, and sulfasalazine.

Some of the common side effects of aminosalicylates include

  • headaches
  • diarrhea
  • heartburn
  • pain in your abdomen
  • nausea and vomiting

Corticosteroids: Corticosteroid drugs are also known as steroid drugs to many. This drug helps to reduce the activity of the immune system of the human body and reduce inflammation. Doctors usually prescribe corticosteroids for patients with moderate to severe symptoms of Crohn's disease. These corticosteroids include budesonide, methylprednisolone, hydrocortisone, and prednisone. However, these drugs are not prescribed by doctors for long-term use.

Side effects of corticosteroids include

  • acne
  • high blood pressure
  • high blood glucose
  • weight gain
  • mood swings
  • a higher chance of developing infections

Immunomodulators: These drugs reduce the activity of the immune system resulting in less inflammation in the digestive system of the human body. Immunomodulators can usually take a few weeks to three months to start working. These include 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine, azathioprine, methotrexate. These drugs are prescribed by doctors mainly to induce remission or if the patient does not respond to other treatments. This medicine may have the following side effects.

  • feeling tired
  • pancreatitis
  • nausea and vomiting
  • a low white blood cell count, which can lead to a higher chance of infection

In addition to the medications mentioned above, there are several other medications that can reduce the symptoms of Crohn's disease. But before taking any medicine, you must consult your doctor.

Bowel rest

If your Crohn's disease symptoms are severe, doctors may suggest that you rest your bowels for a few days to a few weeks. Bowel rest here includes drinking only some liquids or not eating or drinking anything. You may also stay in the hospital to rest your bowels or you may be able to receive treatment at home. In most cases, the bowels in your body will heal while the bowel rests.


If you have severe to severe Crohn's disease symptoms and develop the complications of Crohn's disease mentioned above in this post, several types of surgery can relieve the disease. One study found that about 60% of people with Crohn's disease had surgery within 20 years. Although surgery will not completely cure Crohn's disease, it can treat complications and improve symptoms.

What are the complications of Crohn’s disease?

Crohn's disease can cause several complications that may require more advanced treatment or surgery. Below are some of the complications of Crohn's disease.

Abscesses: An abscess is a pus-filled pocket that can develop in the abdomen or around the anus as a result of an infection. They can cause pain, fever, and tenderness in the affected area.

Anal fissures: These are small tears in your anus that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding.

Fistulas: Fistulas are abnormal connections or tunnels that form between different parts of the intestine and other organs such as the bladder, skin, or vagina. Fistulas can cause pain, infection, and drainage of pus or feces through the skin or other organs.

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Intestinal strictures: Inflammation and scarring of the intestinal walls in our bodies can lead to hardening, known as strictures. These structures can block the intestines, causing symptoms like cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.

Malnutrition: This causes chronic inflammation in the body which can make it more difficult for the body to absorb key nutrients. This can lead to malnutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and weight loss.

Ulcers: Inflammation in the digestive tract can cause ulcers, which are open sores or sores in the lining of the intestines.

Anemia: If infected, the number of blood cells in the body may decrease. A study found that about 1 in 3 people with the disease have anemia.

Conclusion about Crohn's disease

Dear Readers, In today's post we have covered various facts about Crohn's Disease. Where we have always tried to give you accurate information. Then we may have some mistakes and we hope you will forgive us for those mistakes. And never underestimate any disease. Because small diseases cause big problems. So if you realize that you have a disease then you should consult a doctor very quickly. And since we covered various topics including what is Crohn's disease, the causes and symptoms of this disease in this post. If you see the symptoms of this disease in yourself, then you should consult a doctor very quickly. Although this disease cannot be completely cured, the symptoms of this disease can be reduced with proper treatment. Be well and be healthy. Thank you.

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